, also called esotericism
, is a scholarly term applied as a label to a wide range of groups and schools of thought which share a general air de famille
. It refers to a wide array of ideas and movements which have developed within Western society
, and which have remained largely distinct from both orthodox Judeo-Christian religion
and Enlightenment rationalism
. A trans-disciplinary field, esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy, religion, pseudoscience, art, literature, and music, continuing to have an impact on intellectual ideas and popular culture.