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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm
(
von
)
Leibniz
(; or ; ; July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German
polymath
and
philosopher
who occupies a prominent place in the
history of mathematics
and the
history of philosophy
. Scholars including
Bertrand Russell
believe Leibniz developed
calculus
independently of
Isaac Newton
, and
Leibniz's notation
has been widely used ever since it was published. It was only in the 20th century that his
Law of Continuity
and
Transcendental Law of Homogeneity
found mathematical implementation (by means of
non-standard analysis
). He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of
mechanical calculators
. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to
Pascal's calculator
, he was the first to describe a
pinwheel calculator
in 1685 and invented the
Leibniz wheel
, used in the
arithmometer
, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. He also refined the
binary number
system, which is the foundation of virtually all digital
computers
.
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