, usually (although inaccurately) translated as Legalism
is a classical school of Chinese philosophy. Its reformers focused on the centralized management of personnel through protocol and political technique. The developments representative of the term were important in Chinese history, forming guiding principles for the First Emperor
. Sometimes compared with modern social sciences, they rejected their Confucian
contemporaries espousal of a rule based solely on the charisma of the aristocrats as private interest undermining to their ruling patrons. Highly effective in the short run, their dismissiveness of traditional culture, morality and "anti-ministerial" approach earned them enmity, and with the fall of the Qin dynasty
the imperial administration would often be overlaid with Confucian
ideology and customs.