is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress
. The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the development of certain displacement discontinuity surfaces within the solid. If a displacement develops perpendicular to the surface of displacement, it is called a normal tensile crack or simply a crack; if a displacement develops tangentially to the surface of displacement, it is called a shear crack, slip band, or dislocation. Fracture strength
or breaking strength
is the stress when a specimen fails or fractures.